Athens city is one of the most historic cities in the world. It was declared capital of Greece in 1834 and along with the wider area it was the administrative, financial, cultural, commercial and communicational center of the country. The Athens area with the exception of the part that is located towards the Saronic Gulf is surrounded by the mountains Egaleo, Parnitha, Penteli and Ymittos. There is also a series of small hills such as Acropolis, Lykabytus, Philopappous and Pnyka. The two rivers that crossed the capital once, Kifissos and Ilissos are now covered following the fate of the third river Iridanos that was covered during Roman times. The climate is temperate with extensive sunshine and low humidity. The atmospheric pollution “compensates” the temperate climate especially during summer months. Despite the environmental problems the rich and glorious past of the city is the same in great depth with the history of Attika and in combination with the museums, the monuments and the residues of one of the greatest civilizations in all mankind, place Athens as one of the most important destinations globally. E-mail us if you would like to coordinate all your traveling to Athens hassle free. Let us take care of any of the following services you like, e.g transfers, tours, ferry or plane tickets or hotels.
The first human settlements that have been discovered in the area are dated back to the 4th millennium BC. The most important event for the future development was the unification of the 12 settlements that have been founded in Attika area in one state with the Athenians in the center of it. The new unified settlement that was called Athens threw off the Minoan dominance (thanks to Theseus). Theseus created the social classes of the efpatrides (rich and educated people), the farmers and breeders (geomorous) and the craftsmen (creators). The hereditary monarchy was abolished after the coming of the Dorians. The power was then exercised by the Archontes who took their place with a draw and rules for 1 year. Once their year was finished they were tranfered to Areios Pagos, which was the highest court of Ancient Athens. In 624 BC the legislator Drakontas is given the authority to create new laws. These laws were so strict that even doday the saying Drakonteia metra (measures) means very strict laws. In the next decade a new legislator arose and took the task of legislating, Solon. Solon made radical reforms; he founded a parliament with voted repserentatives and defined the duties of citizens according to their wealth. Solon is considered to be the father of Democracy. In 561 BC a tyrranic state was formed by Peisistratus, which created infrastructures such as roads and a drainage and irrigation network. After his death the power passed into the hands of his sons Ippias and Ipparchos.
In 507 BC Kleisthenis brought democracy back. He split Athens into 30 municipalities and 10 tribes, and he increased the members of the parliament into 500 hundred, 50 memders from each tribe all elected. All these modernizations helped in achieving a high standard of life and in appreciating the personal freedom. This is why the Athenians played the most important part in the war against Persians with Miltiadis in the battle of Marathon in 490 BC. Athenians organized a strong naval presence and won in the naval battle of Salamina with Themistoklis leading in 480 BC. After the retrieval of the Persians the 1st Athenian alliance was formed with 140 city states as allies. It was at this period when art and Philosophy flourished in Athens and Acropolis was built. IN the second half of the 5th century the Peloponnesian war weakened Athens 431- 400BC). Athens threw off the status imposed by the Spartans and created the second 2nd Athenian Alliance which fought Thebes and the Macedonians but was finally defeated by the Macedonians in 332 BC. The city declined gradually but people were still going to Athens to study to its Philosophical schools of Plato, Aristotle, Zinon and Epicouros. It was at this point when Pergamos, Alexandreia and Rhodes became very strong. In 146 BC Athens became a Roman territory. The emperor Andrianos lived for a long term in Athens 117-138 AD and during that time he funded big public works, to his honor the Athenians constructed the gate of Andrianos which is preserved to the day.
During Byzantine times the cultural uplift continues until Emperor Ioustinian order the Philosophical schools to close. After the fall of Constantinople by the crusaders, Athens belonged to the Duchy of Athens until 1308. For the next 70 years it was under Catalonian dominance and then under Franc dominance. In 1456 AD it was conquered by the Turks. In the 15-16-17th century it was a place of continuous battle among the Turks and the Venetians. IN 1821 the revolution started and the liberation came in 1833. In 1834 the capital of the Greek state was transferred there and the city starts to incline. In 1896 the first modern Olympic Games were conducted there. There were several riots for the throwing off of monarchy. In 1922-23 with the Minor Asia destructions Athens receives the refugees. IN 1941 the German occupation army enters Athens until 1944. This was followed by a civil war and after that a military government that ended in 1974. The reconstruction of Athens began in 1980 with the initiative of Melina Mercury and the final reconstruction took place in 2004 with the Olympic Games of Athens.