Kefallonia has an area of 781 square km. It is the biggest island in the Ionian Sea and the 6th biggest island of the country. Its distance from Zakynthos is at 8 nautical miles and its distance from Lefkada is at 5 nautical miles. It’s main port and capital is Argostoli that has a distance of 70 nautical miles from Patra. There are ferries from Patras and from Kyllini that connect the island to the mainland. The length of the island is 51 km and the width of the island is 30 km. The total length of its coastline is 254 km. Most coasts are rocky but there are many sandy beaches between them. The climate of Kefallonia is Mediterranean and very sunny. The winders are mild and there are many rainfalls.
The existence of many Mycenaean findings leads us to assume that Kefallonia and the nearby islands formed a big Mycenaean kingdom. The inhabitants of the island were called Tafioi or Televoes during ancient times. Televoes tried to be kings of the Mycenaean’s and led them to fight them. During historic times kefallonia had 4 city – states, Pali, Krani, Pronnous and Sami. The island took part in the Persian wars. In the Peloponnesian war they stood aside with the Athenians. IN 375 BC they stood aside with the Athenians against Philip the second of Macedonia. In 226 BC the cities of the island took part in the Aitolik group of cities. The city – states of the island remained independed until the Roman conquest in 189 BC the last that fell was Sami. The information about the island during the Early Byzantine times is confusing. During the 11th century AD the theme of Kefallonia is mentioned. The island was pillaged by the crusaders. IN 1185 AD king of Cicely conquest Kefallonia, Ithaca and Zakynthos. IN 1316 AD the Byzantines reclaimed the island. After the end of the Turk- Venetian war in 1479 AD the Turks conquest the island. In 1500 AD a Venetian and Spanish fleet conquest the island. The Venetian domination lasted three centuries. In 1797 AD a French army disembarked in the island preaching the principles of the French Revolution. After 20 months the united fleets of Russians and Turks conquest the island. In 1800 AD the Ionian state was formed, a revolution followed that event and the island was delivered by the Russians to the French (1807). In 1809 AD a British fleet conquests the island and in 1864 the island was unified with Greece. During the 1st and 2nd world war the island was bombarded and during the 2nd world war it was under Italian command. In 1953 an earthquake destroys 25000 houses. The earthquakes are responsible fro the absence of preserved monuments in Kefallonia.