The island of Kos lies south of Kalymnos and it has a distance of 2.5 nautical miles from the coast of Minor Asia. It is the third in Area Island of the Dodecanese after Rhodes and Karpathos. Its total area is 290 km2. This island has natural beauty, good climate, rick history and a number of archeological sites. All these characteristics make Kos one of the most popular resorts of the country. Kos is lowland in its largest part and has many springs. The coastal length of the island totals 112 km.
Kos is inhabited non stop since the Neolithic times. Findings of Neolithic period are found scattered around the island, but the most important findings were found in the cave of Aspri Petra (white rock) during the dark ages (called as such by many) when the Dorians appeared. In the archaic and classical years the capital of the island was Astypalea which is the todays coastal location of Palatia. During the 6th century BC it was part of the Dorian exapolis (six cities) based in Knidos. During the Persian spread it belonged to the Satrapy of Alicarnassos. In 479 BC it was liberated from the Persiansand became part of the Athenian alliance. In 336 BC in the position of the Mycenaean settlement, Kos settlement was formed which evolved in to the todays town. During the Hellenistic period it flourished thanks to the Asclepion (4 century BC).The Asclepion was having thousands of patients from all over the Mediterranean. During the Roman times it was one of the most loved placefor vacations for Roman officers. In the 4th century AD it became a part of the Byzantine providence of the island. In 469 and 554 AD strong earthquakes ruined the city. The Arabs conquered the island in 648 AD. In 1314 AD St John knights conquered the island, in 1522 the turks and in 1912 the Italians.