Heraklion in general

In the central east part of Crete the prefecture of Heraklio is one of the most populous of the country. On its ground lie the residues of the civilization and history of the island (Knossos, Phaistos, Gortyna). It lies between two mountains with impressive natural beauties such as caves, steep mountains and fertile plains. Its coastline has temperate climate with a yearly temperature range of 13 degrees Celsius. In Heraklio the mean temperature of the coldest month is 12,4 Celsius (January) and the mean temperature of the hottest month is 26 Celsius (July) . Heraklio is the economic center of the island, it is also the biggest town it Crete with an airport and a port among its facilities. Crete in Homer took part in the Trojan war. The mythology states that MInoas king of Crete ruled Crete and Athens was obliged to pay tax to Crete until the day that Thiseas killed the Minotaurus, this legends all show the power of Crete kingdom. The first people settled there around 6000 BC in Knossos. Neolithic settlements were found in Malia and in Phestos. In 2600-2000 BC the bronze came along with people from Minor Asia. There were commercial relations with Minor Asia and Egypt. In 2000-1700 BC there was important activity in shipping, fishing and agriculture. In 1950 AD the first palace are being built in Knossos, Phaistos and Malia. There was colonization of the nearby islands of Milos and Kythira. In 1700 BC there was a big earthquake and in 1450 BC distraction stroke probably from the eruption of the volcano of Santorini. There was invasion of Mycenaeans after that but mycenaeans became one with the local population. IN 1400-1100 BC the density of population in Knossos and Phaistos was high. The nautical activities declined and the inhabitants were withdrawn in to more mountainous regions. In 900 -650 BC the city states were created and the island was largely affected by Dorians. In the classical years that followed there were civil wars and decline. In 69BC-330AD the island came under roman dominance. In 325-824 AD there is a lack of information but we know that the island became part of the East Byzantine empire. It was taken by Arabs during the 824AD to 961 AD time period. In 961 AD it was liberated but in 1204 AD the Venetians occupied it, but with continuous revolutions at that period. Heraklio was under siege by Turks from 1645 AD until 1669 AD for 23 years and finally it fell to the dominance of the Turks. In 1830-40 there was Egyptian Occupation then the Turks occupied it again and during that times there were continuous revolutions. IN 1898 AD a Cretan parliament was formed whilst in 1913 it was united with Greece.

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